MILAN – A report from the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC) highlights the potential role of coffee consumption in reducing the risk of developing MetS, a condition which is estimated to affect more than one billion people across the globe1. Having MetS increases the risk of cardiovascular problems, including coronary heart disease and stroke1.
The report, titled ‘Coffee and Metabolic Syndrome: A review of the latest research’, summarises the research discussed at a satellite symposium hosted by ISIC at the 13th European Nutrition Conference organised by the Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) in Dublin, Ireland.
During the symposium, Assistant Professor Giuseppe Grosso reviewed his own scientific research on the association between coffee consumption and MetS in Polish and Italian cohorts and explored the potential mechanistic perspectives behind the inverse association.
His research suggests that polyphenols contained in coffee may be involved in the inverse association, specifically phenolic acids and flavonoids2,3. He also reviewed research that suggests that moderate coffee consumption is associated with a reduction of CVD, cancer, all-cause mortality and type 2 diabetes4,5,8,9,10.
Associate Professor Estefania Toledo reviewed meta-analyses considering associations between coffee consumption and MetS and discussed work in a Mediterranean cohort. Her research into the SUN (Seguimiento University of Navarra) cohort involved 22,000 people and specifically considered caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee6. The study concluded that moderate coffee consumption (1-4 cups per day) was associated with reduced risk of MetS, whilst higher intakes were not. This was reported for both regular and decaffeinated coffee6.
Key research findings highlighted in the roundtable report include:
- Meta-analyses have suggested that drinking 1-4 cups of coffee per day is associated with a reduced risk of MetS in observational studies2,3.
- Research suggests that specific conditions of MetS, namely type 2 diabetes and hypertension, are also inversely associated with coffee consumption5,6,8,9,10. Associations with obesity are less clear11.
- The inverse association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome was shown in both men and women5,7,10.
- Meta-analyses have suggested that a moderate consumption of both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee may be associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome6.
- Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms involved in the association. To date, in research the importance of polyphenols and hydroxycinnamic acids has been of note2,3.
Moderate coffee consumption can be defined as 3-5 cups per day, based on the European Food Safety Authority‘s review of caffeine safety12. The review concluded that moderate caffeine consumption, of around 400mg caffeine per day, can be enjoyed as part of a healthy balanced diet and an active lifestyle.
Associate Professor Estefania Toledo, University of Navarra, Spain
Assistant Professor Giuseppe Grosso, University of Catania, Italy
1. Saklaven M.G. (2018) The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome. Curr Hypertens Rep, 20(2):12.
2. Grosso G. et al. (2015) Association of daily coffee and tea consumption and metabolic syndrome: results from the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study. Eur J Nutr, 54(7):1129-37.
3. Grosso G. et al. (2014) Factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a mediterranean population: role of caffeinated beverages. J Epidemiol, 24(4):327-33.
4. Grosso G. et al. (2016) Coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in smokers and non-smokers: a dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol, 31(12):1191-1205.
5. Carlstom M., Larsson S.C. (2018) Coffee consumption and reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Nutr Rev, 76(6):395-417.
6. Navarro A.M. et al. (2019) Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension in the SUN Project. Clin Nutr, 38(1):389-397.
7. Grosso G. et al (2017) Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 9(8). pii: E890.
8. Marventano S. et al. (2016) Coffee and tea consumption in relation with non-alcoholic fatty liver and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Clin Nutr, 35(6):1269-1281.
9. Shang F., Li X., Jiang X. (2016) Coffee consumption and risk of the metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab, 42(2):80-7.
10. Wilsgaard T., Jacobsen K. (2011) Lifestyle factors and incident metabolic syndrome: The Tromsø Study 1979-2001. Diab Res & Clin Prac, 78(2):217-224.
11. Lee A. et al. (2019) Coffee Intake and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 11(6). p ii: E1274.
12. EFSA (2015) Scientific Opinion on the Safety of Caffeine, EFSA Journal, 13(5):4102.
The Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC) is a not-for-profit organization, established in 1990 and devoted to the study and disclosure of science related to “coffee and health.” Since 2003 ISIC also supports a pan-European education programme, working in partnership with national coffee associations in nine countries to convey current scientific knowledge on “coffee and health” to health care professionals.
ISIC members are six of the major European coffee companies: illycaffè, Jacobs Douwe Egberts, Lavazza, Nestlé, Paulig, and Tchibo.